- CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services), (2018) 2
Ecosystem services are defined as the contributions that ecosystems make to human well-being, and distinct from the goods and benefits that people subsequently derive from them. Services are grouped into three sections: Provisioning; Regulation and Maintenance; and Cultural.
- IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services), 2019 3
Adopts the classification system used under nature’s contributions to people (NCP) in recognition that many services fit into more than one of the four categories used in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, for example food may be both a provisioning service and a cultural service.
- Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds) (2005) Millenium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing, Volume 1, Current State and Trends. Island Press, Washington
- Haines-Young, R. and M.B. Potschin (2018): Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) V5.1 and Guidance on the Application of the Revised Structure.
- IPBES (Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services), 2019. Ecosystem services