Cultural ecosystem services
The non-material beneﬁts people obtain from ecosystems through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, reﬂection, recreation, and aesthetic experience, including, e.g. knowledge systems, social relations, and aesthetic values.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005 1
- CICES (Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services), 2018 2
All the non-material, and normally non-rival and non-consumptive, outputs of ecosystems (biotic and abiotic) that affect physical and mental states of people.
References & Websites
- Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds) (2005) Millenium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing, Volume 1, Current State and Trends. Island Press, Washington
- Haines-Young, R. and M.B. Potschin (2018), Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) V5.1 and Guidance on the Application of the Revised Structure.