The capacity of a natural system to recover from disturbance. The level of disturbance that an ecosystem or society can undergo without crossing a threshold that creates different structures or outputs. Resilience depends on factors such as ecological dynamics and the organisational and institutional capacity to understand, manage and respond to these dynamics. 1 2

IPBES (2019) 1 as referenced by TNFD (2022) 2

The capacity of a system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity, and feedbacks.

Walker et al. (2004) 3