A glossary of definitions for terms relating to biodiversity, ecosystems services and conservation.
All definitions are referenced, where possible preference has been given to internationally recognised definitions (for example those defined by international conventions or agreements). The terms have been chosen to support understanding of biodiversity and conservation issues, and terms relating to biodiversity loss are complemented by those relating to conservation responses supported by international conservation organisations, governments, scientists and business sectors.
More detailed explanations are provided for a number of key terms, to provide further background information.
The terms can be filtered by category to aid in the navigation of the many definitions.
“Free implies that indigenous peoples and local communities are not pressured, intimidated, manipulated or unduly influenced and that their consent is given, without coercion; Prior implies seeking consent or approval sufficiently in advance of any authorization to access traditional knowledge respecting the customary decision-making processes in accordance with national legislation and time requirements of indigenous peoples and local communities;
Informed implies that information is provided that covers relevant aspects, such as: the intended purpose of the access; its duration and scope; a preliminary assessment of the likely economic, social, cultural and environmental impacts, including potential risks; personnel likely to be involved in the execution of the access; procedures the access may entail and benefit sharing arrangements;
Consent or approval is the agreement of the indigenous peoples and local communities who are holders of traditional knowledge or the competent authorities of those indigenous peoples and local communities, as appropriate, to grant access to their traditional knowledge to a potential user and includes the right not to grant consent or approval;
Involvement refers to the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples and local communities, in decision-making processes related to access to their traditional knowledge. Consultation and full and effective participation of indigenous peoples and local communities are crucial components of a consent or approval process”.