Ecosystem integrity


An ecosystem is generally understood to have integrity when its dominant ecological characteristics (e.g. elements of composition, structure, function, and ecological processes) occur within their natural ranges of variation and can withstand and recover from most perturbations.

CBD (2021) 1

Indicators of ecosystem integrity may include the “structure, function and composition of an ecosystem relative to the preindustrial range of variation of these characteristics”.

Hansen et al. (2021) 2